Back cover Front cover

"Wirtualne modelarstwo" is a free e-book, published on Creative Commons license. The same rules apply to the models and scripts, attached to it.
I have restricted the right to translate it to any other language: it requires my written permission.

The table below contains a few sentences about each chapter of this book. They allow you to find out, what this publication contains. Because it is mainly build from the pictures, it can be still usable to some extent, regardless its language. (It is not the same like the real translation to English, of course). You can download whole book (63 MB), or downlad its fragments - from links, placed in the table below. (These fragments have pictures of better quality).

Exemplary page
from the chapter
Chapter File with the fragment File size
Cover page and the table of contents

There is a rendered model, made from this book, on its cover page. This is the ultimate "proof" of this publication. If you like it, then the information inside may be also interesiting!

01_toc.pdf 0.5 MB
Why I have written this book?

Explanation, what forces me to spend all my free time on the work over this book.

02_intro.pdf 10.2 MB
How to read this book?

"WM" is not intended to be read "from the begining to the end". Such "normal" text is contained in the first part (up to the chapter 8). It explains what you should to do.
The other parts are optional. They contains details of the program commands, used in this book. They explain how to do it. (If you already know this, you do not need to look there).

Notation, used in this book

Explains, how the keyboard shortcuts and mouse buttons are marked in the text.

Your first model

This part bears such name, because this book is intended mostly for the novices. Do not take it too seriously. If you already know Bednder, just skip what you know, and read the rest. I am sure, that you still can find an interesting fragment, here.
Rozdział (Chaper) 1. Preparation of the environment

Short description of the installation of required software — GIMP, Inkscape and Blender — on a computer with Windows. (Most of the potential readers use this system, I suppose.)

Rozdział (Chapter) 2. Preparation of the blueprints

Some suggestion about the sources of good scale drawinwgs. Describes, how to transform them from the printed pages into raster images, prepared for the use in Blender. Simulatously, the reader learns GIMP.

In this chapter I have shown basic verification of the scale drawings. You can find more advanced method in the appendices part, Rozdział (Chapter) 9.

Rozdział (Chapter) 3. Blender - first steps

Introduction to Blender for absolute beginners.
I have tried to avoid screens with trivial content, like default Blender cubes or spheres. The reader could get bored with them. I teach the Blender basic on examples of ready model (La-5), attached to this book. The Blender interface, 3D View navigation and basic object transformations - translation, rotation, scale - are described here. I have shown also, how to use cameras. Chapter ends with rendering of the scene with La-5 in flight.

Rozdział (Chapter) 4. Shaping the airplane

The longest chapter of this book. Shows, mesh after mesh, how to shape P-40. Components of II WW fighters were all shaped in similar fashion, so you can use these methods for the other planes.
It starts with the simplest case - the spinner, which is described in all details. (This is the level appropriate for the novices). Then the description gradually passes to more difficult elements, setting up the steady learning curve.

The final product of this chapter is the airplane, containg all important elements.

03_model01.pdf 10.6 MB
04_model02.pdf 15.6 MB
Rozdział (Chapter) 5. Composition of the simplest scene

Introduction to materials in Blender. Covering whole model with imitation of polished aluminum skin, for the beginig.

Creation of typical flight scene: background setup, lights and cameras. Finally we will obtain the first, preliminary rendering of the model.

05_textures.pdf 17.3 MB
Rozdział (Chapter) 6. Textures

Introduction to Blender textures, on the example of panel edges and rivets of the fin. Explanation of the UV space and unwrappings. Unwrapping of all model surfaces to common UV area.

Bump maps and their use in modelling details of the airplane skin.

Color textures: camuflage, markings.

A texture that creates holes (modulating the alpha value) is also presented.

Rozdział (Chapter) 7. Remaining details

Creation of the main landing gear, tail wheel, and basic cockpit "furniture". Composition of the pilot figure ("a standard one" is delivered with this book, together with other files).

Application of constraints to build the trajectory of the rudder, elevator, ailerons, flaps, and landing gear. (A kind of "virtual mechanism" is created, this way). Usage of universal control panel (a Python script) to easily handle all these moveable parts.

06_details.pdf 12.8 MB
Rozdział (Chapter) 8. Composition and rendering of the scene

The composition and rendering of the scene in the flight. "Rotating" the propeller. An example of the integration with ground photo (scene on the aerodrome). Placing the model (and its shadow!) on the real picture.


Here I describe with more details some subjects, which were just "touched" in the first part of this book.

07_appendix.pdf 7.7 MB
Rozdział (Chapter) 9. Detailed verification of the scale drawings

People make mistakes, so even in the best blueprint of the airplane you can find an error. This chpater shows the advanced methods of verification, which can be applied to the scale drawings.

These methods you can use also to compile new, better drawings from the collected material. (If you would like to start create such things)

Rozdział (Chapter) 10. Additional explanations

  • structure of the Blender drawing (file). After this reading you will know the meaning of magic words in Blender labels and messages (datablock, for example);
  • how the subdivision surfaces "are calculated". I describe their properties, which are implied from this math model. Some of them have a great importance in the practice. (My engineering education reveals this way: you should always know the properties of the material, used in your design!);
  • cross sections of the wings, tailplanes and propellers. Explanation, why this shape is so important. Useful links to sites with geometric data of the airfoils.
  • panoramas of the scene environment, in Blender. Explanation, how and when to use the HDR and normal images for the environment textures. Some practical tips about them.
  • color math. Explanation, how colors are represented in computer graphics (R,G,B,A), and how various "mixing modes" work
  • true colors of the airplane. Introduction to discovering real tones of historic paints
  • Details of the program commands

    This is a "reference" part. Here I have collected detailed description of the commands, used in the first part. Treat it as an additional help file.

    08_gimp.pdf 8.0 MB
    Rozdział (Chapter) 11. GIMP - usage details

    Introduction to GIMP, and description of the commands, used to create this model.

    Rozdział (Chapter) 12. Inkscape - usage details

    Introduction to Inkscape, and description of the commands, used to create this model.

    09_inkscape.pdf 7.7 MB
    Rozdział (Chapter) 13. Blender - general commands

    Introduction to Blender is placed in the first part of the book, so it is skipped here. In this chapter I have placed Blender commands, which are mode-independent.

    10_blender.pdf 17.4 MB
    Rozdział (Chapter) 14. Blender - Object Mode commands

    Introduction to Object Mode. Description of the commands, used to create this model. (The commands that create the new objects, in particular).

    Rozdział (Chapter) 15. Blender - Edit Mode commands

    Introduction to Edit Mode. Description of the commands, used to create this model.

    Rozdział (Chapter) 16. Blender - UV editor

    Introduction to UV editor. Unwrapping commands, used in this model.

    11_blender.pdf 10.6 MB
    Rozdział (Chapter) 17. Blender - other commands

    Other commands, used in this model. (Materials, lights, renderer, etc.)


    Added just because it appears in the other books.

    12_others.pdf 0.3 MB
    Dictionary of the graphics terms

    Some terms, which a traditional (aircraft) modeller can not know. (If he has previously no special interest in computer graphics.)


    Creative Commons rules for this publication

    Full text of publication rules for this e-book.

    13_license.pdf 0.3 MB